The Mark UP

Senator Scott Brown couldn’t be further off-base

Recently, Senator Scott Brown denied that carbon emissions and climate change are connected to asthma and sick children, saying “Nothing could be further from the truth.”

In fact, the Senator couldn’t be further off-base.

  • Rising temperatures are associated with lengthening pollen seasons, which could worsen allergy symptoms and have serious health consequences for asthma sufferers.  The burden of these climate change impacts will be most strongly felt by children.

While there are more scientific studies than can be summarized here, the key studies below support the conclusion that carbon emissions and climate change are connected to asthma.

Here’s a quick scan:

1. Climate change is expected to lead to higher concentrations of ground-level ozone (smog):

A warmer climate is projected to increase emissions of the chemicals that form ozone smog, , speed up ozone–forming chemical reactions in the air, and increase the frequency and duration of stagnant air masses that allow pollution to accumulate, worsening health symptoms. Increased temperatures due to human-induced carbon pollution increase ozone smog more in areas with already elevated concentrations, meaning that climate change tends to worsen ozone pollution most in already-polluted areas.

Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Karl TR, Melillo JM, Peterson TC (eds.). Cambridge University Press (2009), http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf

2. Ozone triggers and worsens asthma symptoms:

Breathing ozone triggers chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion; and can worsen bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. Exposure to ground-level ozone smog can also reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs; repeated exposure may permanently scar lung tissue.

The 2010 Interagency Working Group on Climate Change & Health (IWGCCH)/NIEHS report, “A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change”, http://www.niehs.nih.gov/about/od/programs/climatechange/climatereport2010.pdf

It has been firmly established that breathing ozone causes inflammation in the deep lung. Epidemiologic studies of people living in polluted areas show ozone increases the risk of asthma-related hospital visits and premature mortality.  Vulnerability to ozone effects on the lungs is greater for people who spend time outdoors when ozone levels are high, especially those who engage in physical exertion, which results in a higher cumulative dose to the lungs. Children, outdoor laborers, and athletes all are at greater risk than people who spend more time indoors and are less active. Asthmatics are also a vulnerable subgroup.

Kinney PL. 2008. Climate change, air quality, and human health. Am J Prev Med 35:459–467.  http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(08)00690-9/abstract

3. Rising temperatures and carbon pollution increase pollen production, and are likely to increase allergies, worsening asthma:

Climate change–related increased burden of disease, specifically from allergy and asthma, is anticipated because of changes in the distribution, quantity, and quality of pollen, and lengthening of the pollen season. Asthma and allergic disease will also likely be worsened because of interaction between heavier pollen loads and increasing air pollution from natural and man-made sources.  People with allergy and asthma may expect worsening disease, more days with symptoms, and reduced quality of life as a result of these environmental changes.

KM Shea, RT Truckner, RW Weber, DB Peden. Climate change and allergic disease. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology 2008; 122(3):443-453. http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0091-6749/PIIS0091674908011810.pdf

Rising carbon pollution, or carbon dioxide (CO2), increases the growth and pollen production of plants like ragweed, and the pollen produced may be more allergenic. Along with these health-harming aeroallergens, other effects of burning fossil fuels can pose a “double whammy” to health; for example fossil fuel-produced diesel particles can help deliver allergens deeply into lung airways and irritate immune cells. Climate change effects on plant biology, and subsequent effects on aeroallergens and public health  may help explain the quadrupling of asthma in the United States since 1980.

Ziska L, et al. Rising CO2, Climate Change, and Public Health: Exploring the Links to Plant Biology. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117(2): 155-158. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2649213/

4. Children are especially at risk:

Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of global warming. Global warming compounds the toxicity of fossil-fuel pollutants such as ozone, an important trigger of childhood asthma. Ozone formation from volatile organic chemicals and nitrogen dioxide is accelerated at higher temperatures. Another consequence of a warmer climate is increased plant growth and pollen production, and thus higher levels of natural allergens leading to more allergy and asthma in children.

Perera, F. Children Are Likely to Suffer Most from Our Fossil Fuel Addiction. Environmental Health Perspect 2008; 116 (8):987-990. http://ccceh.hs.columbia.edu/pdf-papers/PereraEHPcommentary2008.pdf

Earlier this month, the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) reported that asthma is rising in the U.S., with 25 million people now afflicted, and the numbers are increasing every year. The  risk of asthma is highest among children. The greatest increase between 2001 and 2009 was seen among African-American children – an almost 50% increase in asthma rates. One in six (17%) of non-Hispanic black children in 2009 had asthma.

The connections between carbon pollution, climate change, air quality, and health have never been more important, especially for our children.